[20] Rodney Riley, Manuella Adrian, "Proposal for a Composite Index of Alcohol Problems" Health Reports Vol. 5 No. 4, (Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, 1993), p. 384; and Canadian Profile: Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs 1994, pp. 13-86.

In 1990, 2,959 Canadians died as a direct result of the abuse of alcohol. Another 15,665 deaths were estimated to be indirectly attributed to alcohol, including 1,805 motor vehicle accidents, 1,015 suicides, and 330 homicides.

In 1989, it was estimated that half a million Canadians were alcoholics.