[19] Canadian Crime Statistics, op. cit.; and Uniform Crime Reports for the United States 1991, 1992, FBI; Irwin Waller and Norman Okhiro, "Burglary: The Victim and the Public", University of Toronto Press, (1978); P. Mayhew, Residential Burglary: A Comparison of the United States, Canada, and England and Wales, (National Institute of Justice, Washington, D. C., 1987); and Kleck, op. cit., p. 140.

A 1978 study of residential break and enter in Toronto, Ontario, reported that 44% of burglarized dwellings were occupied during the burglaries, and 21% of the burglaries resulted in confrontations between the victim and offender. The 1982 British Crime Survey reported that 59% of attempted burglaries and 26% of completed burglaries took place while someone was at home. In comparison, 12.7% of residential burglaries in the United States are against occupied homes.

These dissimilarities between Canada, Great Britain, and the United States can't be easily explained by relative differences in deterrence from their existing criminal justice systems. The probability of arrest and incarceration, as well as the severity of sentences served for common crimes such as burglary, are at least as high in Canada and Great Britain as they are in the United States.