[7] Kleck, op. cit., p. 124, p. 149. Professor Gary Kleck's analysis of United States National Crime Survey data for 1979-1985, refutes the contention made by firearm prohibitionists that resistance with a firearm (or any resistance for that matter) increases the probability of being injured during robbery or assault. Only 17.4% of individuals who used a gun to defend themselves against robbery were injured, compared to 34.9% injured while using non-violent methods (including evasion). In cases of assault, only 12.9% of persons who used a firearm for self-protection were injured compared to 25.5% injured using non-violent (passive) resistance.

In addition, the likelihood that a robbery will be completed is substantially lower when the victim uses a firearm for self defense compared to any other method of self protection, including passive compliance. Over 50% of robberies were completed where non-violent resistance was employed, compared to 30.9% when a firearm was used by the victim for self-defense.