[10] Brandon S. Centerwall, "Exposure to Television as a Risk Factor for Violence", American Journal of Epidemiology, (Vol. 129, 1989), pp. 643-652. Professor Centerwall, Epidemiologist at the University of Washington, found that homicide rates in the United States, Canada, and South Africa increased dramatically 10-15 years after the introduction of television. Particularly significant was his observation that the homicide rate in Canada nearly doubled despite per capita firearm ownership rates remaining stable.

Professor Centerwall concluded that long-term chilhood exposure to television is a causal factor behind at least 50% of the homicides committed in the United States. As much as 50% of all sexual and non-sexual assaults in the US may also be related to television.